Date of publication: 2017-07-08 21:36
Osteoporosis can affect people of any gender, but women make up the majority of cases, and over 95 million people in the US have osteoporosis or are at high risk because of low bone mass, according to the National Institutes of Health. 8
You may not see the results on a bone density test immediately, cautions Felicia Cosman, MD, medical director of the Clinical Research Center at Helen Hayes Hospital in Haverstraw, ., a spokeswoman for the National Osteoporosis Foundation. "Time and time again, I'll recommend weight training to patients and they come back expecting to see big changes in bone density in a year or two."
Patients identified as at risk for osteoporosis (including children and adolescents) should undergo preventive measures, including adequate calcium intake, vitamin D intake, and exercise. Patients should be counseled to avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol use.
Miguel A Schmitz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons , American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine , Arthroscopy Association of North America , and North American Spine Society
Although swimming is not a weight-bearing exercise that will improve BMD, it does provide chest expansion, spinal extension, and low-impact cardiopulmonary fitness. Isometric exercises should also be used to strengthen abdominal muscles, aiding in the prevention of a kyphosis.
Elizabeth A Moberg-Wolff, MD Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin
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Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake are important in persons of any age, particularly in childhood as the bones are maturing, and are essential in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Vitamin D is increasingly being recognized as a key element in overall bone health, calcium absorption, balance (eg, reduction in risk of falls), [ 677 ] and muscle performance. Patients who ingest inadequate amounts of vitamin D and calcium should receive oral supplementation.
Other types of exercise training programs may also positively impact balance and strength. Carter et al demonstrated that osteoporotic women aged 65-75 years who underwent a 65-week community-based physical activity intervention program improved their static balance, dynamic balance, and knee extension strength, although they did not benefit from a significant reduction in fall risk factors. [ 759 ]